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birthstone chart by month

Birthstone chart showing modern birthstones by month.

Birthstone Chart by Month

MONTH

MODERN

ANCIENT

January Garnet Garnet
February Amethyst Amethyst
March Aquamarine Bloodstone
April Diamond Diamond
May Emerald Emerald
June Alexandrite Pearl
July Ruby Ruby
August Peridot or Spinel Sardonyx
September Sapphire Sapphire
October Tourmaline Opal
November Golden Topaz or Citrine Topaz
December Blue Zircon or Tanzanite Turquoise or Lapis

Early in this century jewelers got together and created a new list of birthstones. In the modern list you will find only transparent gems. This makes it much easier to create a mothers ring. Imagine if you needed a pearl, a cabochon of turquoise, a diamond and an emerald. This would be an awkward thing to make look nice.

Another interesting point is the addition of alexandrite. This is an incredibly rare gem and not readily available.

The ancient list is still used considerably. Many people mix the two as they feel best. This is acceptable, the modern list has not replaced the ancient one, but supplemented it.

January – Garnet

Although garnet is commonly associated with the color red, these gemstones can be found in almost any color and are popular choices for jewelry of all types. That’s excellent news if you’re in the market for this January birthstone. The garnet family is one of the most complex in the gem world. It’s not a single species but rather consists of several species and varieties. This gem listing will focus on qualities common to all garnets and offer a brief overview of their diversity.

Color: Mostly red or deep red. Rarer varieties can be light and every color (except blue)
Crystallography: Isometric. Trapezohedron and dodecahedron forms are common. Cube and octahedron forms extremely rare.
Hardness: 6.5 – 7.5
Sources: Brazil, India, Madagascar, and the US

What's the Birthstone for January?

Garnet is the birthstone for January according to both the ancient and modern lists.

February – Amethyst

Amethyst is crystalline quartz in colors ranging from pale lilac to deep reddish purple. With a relatively high hardness of 7, the February birthstone is a fine facetable jewelry gem for all purposes. Lower grades of material can be cabbed, carved, and made into a great variety of beads and other ornamental objects.

Color: Pale lilac to deep reddish purple. May have color zoning.
Crystallography: Hexagonal
Hardness: 7
Sources: Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Zambia

What's the Birthstone for February?

Amethyst is the birthstone for February according to both the ancient and modern lists.

March – Aquamarine

Named after the color of sea water, aquamarine is the blue to blue-green member of the beryl family. Readily available and moderately priced, the modern March birthstone makes an excellent jewelry stone.

Color: Blue to blue-green.
Crystallography: Hexagonal
Hardness: 7.5 – 8
Sources: Brazil, Madagascar, US, Australia, India, Namibia and Nigeria

What's the Birthstone for March?

Amethyst is the birthstone for March according to both the modern list, which is most actively used. Bloodstone is the gemstone on the ancient list for March, but Amethyst is the one most frequently used.

April – Diamond

The beautiful, timeless and immensely popular gemstone – the diamond. Found in most rings in the Western world, this gemstone is prized for it’s clarity, beauty and value.

Color: Colorless, gray, shades of yellow, brown, pink, green, orange, lavender, blue, black; rarely red
Crystallography: Isometric; Crystals sometimes sharp octahedra, dodecahedra, and combinations with other forms.
Hardness: 10
Sources: South Africa, India, Brazil, Borneo, Venezuela, Russia, Australia, and United States

What's the Birthstone for April?

Diamond is the birthstone for April according to both the ancient and modern lists.

May – Emerald

Emerald has been synonymous with the color green since ancient times. A fine emerald is a truly breathtaking sight, and this member of the beryl family deserves its placement among the traditional “Big Four” gems along with diamond, ruby, and sapphire.

Color: Deep to medium green, bluish green.
Crystallography: Hexagonal
Hardness: 7.5-8
Sources: Colombia, Brazil, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and Nigeria

What's the Birthstone for May?

Emerald is the birthstone for May according to both the ancient and modern lists.

June – Pearl

Pearls are the only gems found within living creatures, both salt and freshwater mollusks. However, most pearls on the market today are cultivated, since they now occur extremely rarely in nature. While they require special care, pearls have an enduring appeal for jewelry, particularly as the traditional June birthstone.

Color: Pearl color is the result of a body color and an overtone color or orient present as a lustrous sheen. The orient is the color seen as reflected by a diffuse light source. The rest of the color is due to the body color.
Crystallography: Amorphous. The aragonite in the nacre of a pearl is orthorhombic, with minute crystals radially oriented and a concentric structure.
Hardness: 2.5-4.5
Sources: Worldwide

Modern List – Alexandrite

“Emerald by day, ruby by night,” alexandrite is well known for displaying one of the most remarkable color changes in the gem world — green in sunlight and red in incandescent light. However, the modern June birthstone is so rare and expensive few people have seen a natural alexandrite. That is why we are displaying Pearl instead, as it’s a much more attainable item.

What's the Birthstone for June?

Alexandrite is the birthstone for June according to both the modern list, but it’s a very rare gemstone in general. On the ancient list, June is a Pearl, which is more often used because of the rarity of Alexandrite.

July – Ruby

One of the most popular traditional jewelry stones, ruby is exceptionally durable. Its colors — always red — can reach vivid levels of saturation. Fine-quality rubies are some of the most expensive gemstones, with record prices over $1,000,000 per carat. However, rubies are also subjected to more treatments than almost any other gem.

Color: All varieties of red, from pinkish, purplish, orangey, brownish, to dark red.
Crystallography: Hexagonal
Hardness: 9
Sources: Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Madagascar, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Vietnam

What's the Birthstone for July?

Ruby is the birthstone for July according to both the ancient and modern lists.

August – Peridot

The modern August birthstone, peridot has been prized as a jewelry stone since ancient times. Always green in color but with considerable variations, a peridot’s particular shade depends on its source.

Color: Forsterite: green, pale lemon yellow. Fayalite: green, yellowish, amber brown, brown, olive green.
Crystallography: Orthorhombic. Crystals rare, usually striated prisms, corroded grains; often as rolled pebbles, or in nodules called bombs in volcanic areas.
Hardness: 6.5-7
Sources: Egypt, Myanmar, US, Norway, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Australia

What's the Birthstone for August?

Peridot is the birthstone for August most commonly on the modern list, but Spinel also counts for the month. On the ancient list, Sardonyx was the selection for the month of August.

September – Sapphire

Few gems have held our attention over millennia as well as sapphire. The pure blue colors and excellent durability of this gem-quality member of the corundum family make for an exceptional gemstone. However, not all sapphires are blue. The September birthstone comes in every color of the rainbow. Except red.

Color: All non-red corundum is considered sapphire. Colorless, white, gray, blue, blue-green, green, violet, purple, orange, yellow, yellow-green, brown, golden amber, peachy pink, pink, black. May show color zoning.
Crystallography: Hexagonal (trigonal). Crystals common, often barrel-shaped, prisms with flat ends, sometimes bipyramidal; also massive, granular, in rolled pebbles.
Hardness: 9
Sources: Sri Lanka, Kashmir, Australia, Myanmar, Thailand, and the US

What's the Birthstone for September?

Sapphire is the birthstone for September according to both the ancient and modern lists.

October – Opal

Opals are in a class by themselves. As a species, opal is so unique it has its own descriptive vocabulary. More than any other gem, each opal is distinctly individual. Opals are also the most delicate gemstones commonly worn and require special care.

Color: Colorless, white, yellow, orange, and red (various shades), yellowish brown, greenish, blue, gray, black, violet.
Crystallography: Amorphous. Recent work shows that opal is composed of an aggregate of tiny spherical particles, that is, a solidified gel; often forms concretions; botryoidal; reniform; stalactitic.
Hardness: 5.5-6.5
Sources: Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Tanzania, and the US

Modern List – Tourmaline

Tourmaline is one of our most popular gems. No other mineral comes in more colors and some of the combinations are in a class by themselves.

What's the Birthstone for October?

Tourmaline is the birthstone for October according to both the modern list, which is most actively used. Opal is the gemstone on the ancient list for October, but Tourmaline is the one most frequently used.

November – Topaz

Citrine is the yellow to red-orange variety of crystalline quartz. Clever marketing and the rise of “earth tone” fashions have made this durable and readily available gem a popular jewelry stone in recent years.

Color: Yellow to Red-Orange, also deep orange and orangey brown.
Crystallography: Hexagonal
Hardness: 7
Sources: Bolivia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Namibia, Peru, Russia, South Africa, United States and Zambia.

What's the Birthstone for November?

Golden Topaz is the birthstone for November according to both the modern list, which is most actively used. Citrine Topaz is the gemstone on the ancient list for November, but Golden Topaz is the one most frequently used.

December – Blue Zircon

Don’t be confused by the name. Zircon is a natural, magnificent, and underrated gemstone that has been worn and treasured since ancient times. It’s not cubic zirconia. Available in many colors, zircon is one of the modern December birthstones and will look wonderful in jewelry if set carefully.

Color: Reddish brown, yellow, gray, green, red; various other colors induced by heating.
Crystallography: Tetragonal. Crystals prismatic, pyramidal; often twinned; rounded pebbles.
Hardness: 6-7.5
Sources: Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Australia and Canada

What's the Birthstone for December?

Blue Zircon (or Blue Topaz) is the birthstone for December most commonly on the modern list, but Tanzanite also counts for the month. On the ancient list, Turquoise or was the selection for the month of December.

International Gem Society Birthstone Chart

Compliments of The International Gem Society

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