Cutting Information for Specific Gemstones

Tips and tricks for cutting, faceting and recutting specific types of gemstones.

Cutting Information for Specific Gemstones

  • Achroite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Achroite Tourmaline Color: (Greek – without color) colorless or nearly so, fairly rare Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small…

  • Almandine Faceting / Facet Garnet Rough

    Almandine (Garnet) Color: Red with a violet tint, red with an orange tint Moh’s Hardness: 7.5 Refractive Index: 1.78-1.81 Critical Angle: 34.18° Specific Gravity: 3.95-4.20 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal, can be…

  • Amber Facet / Faceting Information

    Amber Color: Yellow, red, orange and brown Moh’s Hardness: 2-2½ Refractive Index: 1.54 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 1.05-1.096 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal-brittle Dispersion: None Heat Sensitivity: Extremely…

  • Amethyst Facet / Faceting Information

    Amethyst (Quartz) Color: Purple, violet to red-violet, blue/purple Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat…

  • Ametrine Facet / Faceting Information

    Ametrine (Quartz) Color: Amethyst/Citrine mix – purple, violet to red-violet, blue/purple with yellow/gold orange Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage:…

  • Andalusite Facet / Faceting Information

    Andalusite Color: brown, green, pink, violet, red. Moh’s Hardness: 7-7½ Refractive Index: 1.641-1.648 Critical Angle: 37.57° Specific Gravity: 3.12-3.18 Cleavage: Imperfect, but distinct in one direction. Fracture: Uneven,…

  • Apatite Facet / Faceting Information

    Apatite Color: blue, green, yellow, pink, violet, colorless. Moh’s Hardness: 5 Refractive Index: 1.632-1.646 Critical Angle: 37.84° Specific Gravity: 3.17-3.23 Cleavage: Poor, imperfect Fracture: Conchoidal,…

  • Aquamarine Facet / Faceting Information

    Aquamarine (Beryl) Color: Light blue to blue-green Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.87° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Bixbite Facet / Faceting Information

    Bixbite (Beryl) Color: Red to strawberry-red Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive Index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.87° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity: Moderate,…

  • Bytownite Facet / Faceting Information

    Bytownite (Feldspar) Color: Pale yellow to brown Moh’s Hardness: 6-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.52-1.568 Critical Angle: 41.14° Specific Gravity: 2.56-2.70 Cleavage: Perfect Fracture: Uneven, can be brittle Dispersion: .012 Heat…

  • Chrome Diopside Facet / Faceting Information

    Diopside (chrome) Color: Chrome green to colorless. Moh’s Hardness: 5-6 Refractive Index: 1.671-1.726 Critical Angle: 36.78° Specific Gravity: 3.27-3.31 Cleavage: Perfect Fracture: Uneven Heat Sensitivity: Yes in my…

  • Chrysoberyl / Alexanderite Facet / Faceting Information

    Chrysoberyl / Alexanderite Color: Chrysoberyl – Golden-yellow, greenish to brownish. Alexandrite – Color change from green to purple or red. Moh’s hardness: 8.5 Refractive Index: 1.744-1.755 Critical Angle: 35° Specific Gravity:…

  • Citrine Facet / Faceting Information

    Citrine (Quartz) Color: Orange, orange/red, yellow, gold, brown/orange Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat…

  • Clear Quartz Facet / Faceting Information

    Clear/Crystal (Quartz) Color: clear Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat Sensitivity: Can be… but is usually…

  • Color Change Sapphire Facet / Faceting Information

    Color Change (Sapphire) Color: Purple, violet to red-violet, blue/purple, pink/red to blue/purple… about any combination is possible Moh’s Hardness: 8.5-9 Refractive Index: 1.766-1.774 Critical Angle: 34.62° Specific Gravity:…

  • Cubic Zirconia Synthetic Facet / Faceting Rough

    Cubic Zirconium             Color: All ranges, including color changes Moh’s Hardness: 8.25-8.5 Refractive index: 2.14-2.20 Critical Angle: 27.86° Specific Gravity: 5.7 Cleavage:…

  • Danburite Facet / Faceting Information

    Danburite Color: Colorless, pink, wine-yellow and brownish. Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.63-1.636 Critical Angle: 37.84° Specific Gravity: 3.0 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Uneven, conchoidal Dispersion: .017 Heat…

  • Demantoid Faceting / Facet Garnet Information

    Demantoid (Garnet) Color: Green, Emerald Green Moh’s Hardness: 6.5-7 Refractive Index: 1.88-1.89 Critical Angle: 32.13° Specific Gravity: 3.82-3.85 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal Heat Sensitivity: Yes Birefringence (double…

  • Dravite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Dravite Tourmaline Color: Brown, yellow-brown, orange-brown and reddish-brown Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small…

  • Elbaite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Elbiate Tourmaline Color: Green/red/pink, watermelon (green outside red inside like the fruit) Moh’s hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small…

  • Emerald Facet / Faceting Information

    Emerald (Beryl) Color: Green Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive Index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.87° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity: Yes, especially…

  • Fancy Zircon Facet / Faceting Information

    Zircon (Fancy) Color: Colorless, yellow, brown, red, blue, green, orange, violet and pink, about any color. I classify fancy Zircons as unusual or different than the norm. Unusual color… Moh’s hardness: 6.5-7.5 Type – Normal (high RI):…

  • Fluorite Facet / Faceting Information

    Fluorite Color: Colorless, yellow, green, blue, pink, purple, red and orange Moh’s Hardness: 4 Refractive Index: 1.434 Critical Angle: 44.37° Specific Gravity: 3.18 Cleavage: Perfect in 4 directions Fracture: Even to conchoidal,…

  • Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Facet / Faceting Information

    Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) Color: Colorless, yellow, green, blue, pink, purple, red and orange Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.97 – 2.02 Critical Angle: 30.51° Specific Gravity: 7.02 Cleavage: None Fracture:…

  • Glass Facet / Faceting Information

    Glass / Obsidian Glass – Leaded glasses are available in all types of colors and refractive indexes. I do not recommend cutting leaded glass because of the health dangers of the lead. Obsidian (volcanic siliceous glass) Type: Apache…

  • Goshenite Facet / Faceting Information

    Goshenite (Beryl) Color: Colorless Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive Index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.87° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Grossular Faceting / Facet Garnet Information

    Grossular (Garnet) Color: Green yellow, copper, brown Moh’s Hardness: 7.5 Refractive Index: 1.73-1.75 Critical Angle: 35.31° Specific Gravity: 3.60-3.68 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Helidore Facet / Faceting Information

    Helidore (Beryl) Color: yellow, yellow/green Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive Index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.97° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity: Slightly Dichroism:…

  • Hiddenite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Hiddenite (Spodumene) Color: Emerald green, yellow-green, yellow Moh’s Hardness: 6-7 Refractive Index: 1.655-1.68 Critical Angle: 37.31° Specific Gravity: 3.16-3.20 Cleavage: perfect in 2 directions Fracture: Uneven, very…

  • Hyacinth Zircon Facet / Faceting Information

    Hyacinth (Zircon) Color: brown, red, orange, yellow/orange/brown Moh’s hardness: 6.5-7.5 Type – Normal (high RI): Sometimes called high Zircon1.94-1.987 normal (higher refractive index) zircon is usually found in crystal form. Critical…

  • Idocrase Facet / Faceting Information

    Idocrase / Vesuvianite Color: Green to olive/green, yellow/green Moh’s Hardness: 6.5 Refractive Index: 1.71 Critical Angle: 35.79° Specific Gravity: 3.32-3.42 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Uneven, splintery Dispersion: .019 Heat…

  • Indicolite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Indicolite Tourmaline Color: Blue, sometimes with a hint of green Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small…

  • Iolite Facet / Faceting Information

    Iolite Color: Blue/purple and yellow with violet and/or gray undertones Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.53-1.55 Critical Angle: 40.81° Specific Gravity: 2.58-2.66 Cleavage: Distinct in 3 directions Fracture: Uneven, conchoidal,…

  • Kunzite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Kunzite (Spodumene) Color: Pink, violet, cornflower-blue Moh’s Hardness: 6-7 Refractive Index: 1.655-1.68 Critical Angle: 37.31° Specific Gravity: 3.16-3.20 Cleavage: perfect in 2 directions Fracture: Uneven, very splintery Dispersion:…

  • Labradorite Facet / Faceting Information

    Labradorite (Feldspar) Color: Pale yellow to gray with play of color, quality material has a rainbow like sheen Moh’s Hardness: 6-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.52-1.568 Critical Angle: 41.14° Specific Gravity: 2.69-2.70 Cleavage:…

  • Moldavite Facet / Faceting Information

    Moldavite Color: Bottle-green to olive green Moh’s Hardness: 5.5 Refractive Index: 1.48-1.50 Critical Angle: 42.51° Specific Gravity: 2.32-2.38 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Heat Sensitivity: Low Birefringence (double…

  • Morganite Facet / Faceting Information

    Morganite (Beryl) Color: Pink to peach Moh’s Hardness: 7.5-8 Refractive Index: 1.57-1.60 Critical Angle: 39.87° Specific Gravity: 2.65-2.75 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, tough Dispersion: .014 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Opal Facet / Faceting Information

    Opal Color: Colorless, yellow, orange, red Moh’s Hardness: 5-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.44-1.46 Critical Angle: 43.98° Specific Gravity: 1.9-2.23 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal, brittle, splintery Dispersion: None Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Orthoclase Facet / Faceting Information

    Orthoclase (Feldspar) Color: Colorless, champagne to yellow Moh’s Hardness: 6-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.52-1.568 Critical Angle: 41.14° Specific Gravity: 2.56-2.62 Cleavage: Perfect in 3 directions, can be a problem when…

  • Padparadschah Sapphire Facet / Faceting Information

    Padparadschah (Sapphire) Color: pink/orange Moh’s Hardness: 8.5-9 Refractive Index: 1.766-1.774 Critical Angle: 34.62° Specific Gravity: 3.99-4.01 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat Sensitivity: Can be… but…

  • Peridot Facet / Faceting Information

    Peridot Color: Yellow-green, apple-green, olive/green Moh’s Hardness: 6.5-7 Refractive Index: 1.654-1.69 Critical Angle: 37.31° Specific Gravity: 3.27-3.37 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Brittle, small conchoidal Dispersion: .02 Heat…

  • Pyrope Faceting / Facet Garnet Rough

    Pyrope (Garnet) Color: Red with brown tint Moh’s Hardness: 7.5 Refractive Index: 1.73-1.76 Critical Angle: 35.31° Specific Gravity: 3.65-3.80 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal Heat Sensitivity: Slightly Birefringence…

  • Rhodochrosite Facet / Faceting Information

    Rhodochrosite Color: Rosy-red to pink Moh’s Hardness: 3.3-3.7 Refractive Index: 1.60-1.82 Critical Angle: 38.68° for low RI and 33.33° for high RI Specific Gravity: 3.30-3.70 Cleavage: Perfect in 3 directions Fracture: Uneven,…

  • Rhodolite Faceting / Facet Garnet Information

    Uvarovite (Garnet) Color: Emerald Green Moh’s Hardness: 6.5-7 Refractive Index: 1.88-1.89 Critical Angle: 32.13° Specific Gravity: 3.77 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal Heat Sensitivity: Slightly Crystal Structure:…

  • Rose Quartz Facet / Faceting Information

    Rose (Quartz) Color: Pink, peach/pink Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat Sensitivity: Can be… but is…

  • Rubellite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Rubellite Tourmaline Color: Red/Purple/Pink Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small conchoidal. Dispersion: .017 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Ruby Sapphire Facet / Faceting Information

    Ruby (Sapphire) Color: Red, red with purple or orange highlights Moh’s Hardness: 8.5-9 Refractive Index: 1.766-1.774 Critical Angle: 34.62° Specific Gravity: 3.99-4.01 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat…

  • Sapphire Facet / Faceting Rough

    Sapphire Color: Red, blue, orange, pink, yellow, clear, about any color Moh’s Hardness: 8.5-9 Refractive Index: 1.766-1.774 Critical Angle: 34.62° Specific Gravity: 3.99-4.01 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion:…

  • Scapolite Facet / Faceting Information

    Scapolite Color: Yellow, purple, pink, colorless, greenish Moh’s Hardness: 5-6 Refractive Index: 1.54-1.56 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.57-2.74 Cleavage: Perfect in 2 directions Fracture: Conchoidal,…

  • Schorl Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Schorl Tourmaline Color: Black, usually opaque Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small conchoidal. Dispersion: .017 Heat…

  • Siberite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Siberite Tourmaline Color: Blue/purple Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small conchoidal. Dispersion: .017 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Smokey Quartz Facet / Faceting Information

    Smokey (Quartz) Color: Smokey grey, yellow to peach tint Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat Sensitivity: Can…

  • Spessartite Faceting / Facet Garnet Information

    Spessartite (Garnet) Color: Orange to red brown Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.79-1.81 Critical Angle: 33.96° Specific Gravity: 4.12-4.20 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Subconchoidal Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Sphalerite Facet / Faceting Information

    Sphalerite Color: Green, brown, yellow, red, orange and colorless Moh’s Hardness: 3.5-4 Refractive Index: 2.268-2.371 Critical Angle: 26.26° Specific Gravity: 4.08-4.10 Cleavage: Perfect in 6 directions Fracture: Uneven,…

  • Sphene Facet / Faceting Information

    Sphene Color: Brown, yellow, green, brownish-red Moh’s Hardness: 5-5.5 Refractive Index: 1.995-2.05 Critical Angle: 30.17° Specific Gravity: 3.52-3.54 Cleavage: Perfect Fracture: conchoidal, brittle Dispersion: .051 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Spinel Facet / Faceting Information

    Spinel Color: Red, purple, blue, lavender, green, pink, yellow (unusual), orange/peach Moh’s Hardness: 8 Refractive Index: 1.712-1.736 Critical Angle: 35.79° Specific Gravity: 3.58-3.61 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Conchoidal,…

  • Starlite Zircon Facet / Faceting Information

    Starlite (Zircon) Color: Blue Moh’s hardness: 6.5-7.5 Type – Normal (high RI): Sometimes called high Zircon1.94-1.987 normal (higher refractive index) zircon is usually found in crystal form. Critical Angle: 30.33° Type – Metamict (lower…

  • Sunstone Facet / Faceting Information

    Sunstone (Feldspar) Color: Sunstone Colorless, champagne, Schiller (copper inclusions, usually used for cabochons), Multi colored (green, blue, red, orange), red Moh’s Hardness: 6-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.52-1.568 Critical Angle:…

  • Tanzanite Facet / Faceting Information

    Tanzanite Color: Blue, violet, purple, orange, brown, colorless and pink, also some collector colors Moh’s Hardness: 6-6.5 Refractive Index: 1.691-1.70 Critical Angle: 36.28° Specific Gravity: 3.10-3.37 Cleavage: Perfect in 1…

  • Topaz Facet / Faceting Information

    Topaz Color: Blue, colorless, pink, orange, red, champagne, sherry-brown, brown and yellow Moh’s Hardness: 8 Refractive Index: 1.61-1.638 Critical Angle: 38° Specific Gravity: 3.53-3.56 Cleavage: Very perfect in one direction Fracture:…

  • Treated Quartz Facet / Faceting Information

    Oro Verde (Quartz) Color: Gold to yellow/green Moh’s Hardness: 7 Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 Critical Angle: 40.49° Specific Gravity: 2.63-2.65 Cleavage: None Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .013 Heat Sensitivity: Can be… but…

  • Verdelite Tourmaline Facet / Faceting Information

    Verdelite Tourmaline Color: Green, to yellow/green, green/blue… Moh’s Hardness: 7-7.5 Refractive Index: 1.616-1.652 Critical Angle: 38.23° Specific Gravity: 3.02-3.26 Cleavage: None Fracture: Uneven, small…

  • Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Facet / Faceting Information

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Color: Wide range of colors available. Moh’s Hardness: 8.5 Refractive Index: 1.833 Critical Angle: 33.12° Specific Gravity: 4.55 Cleavage: Imperfect Fracture: Conchoidal Dispersion: .028 Heat Sensitivity:…

  • Zincite Facet / Faceting Information

    Zincite (zinc oxide) Color: Orange, red and yellow, leek-green, light blue to colorless. Moh’s Hardness: 4-4.5 Refractive Index: 2.02 Critical Angle: 29.67° Specific Gravity: 5.6 Cleavage: Perfect Fracture: Subconchoidal,…

  • cutting kunzite - cushion cut
    Tips for Cutting Kunzite 

    Cutting kunzite and other minerals with easy cleavage is a major challenge. Many gem cutters shy away from these materials because they lack the knowledge or proper techniques. Here are a few tips to make working with these gemstones…

  • Carving Black Jade

    One of the featured Kraft Masters this year is a friend of mine named Jason Penn. Jason demonstrated carving/cabbing a black jade pendant set with a fresh water pearl. Left: A black Jade and pearl Pendant carved by Jason Penn. Black Jade -…

  • Just Ask Jeff: Cutting Sapphires – “Simple Heart”

    Cutting Sapphires – “Simple Heart” I have a lot of people tell me that they have trouble cutting Sapphires, so here is an article about how I do them. I am going to be cutting a new heart design of mine called “Simple Heart”. This design is posted…

  • polishing garnets and tourmalines – ring stone
    Polishing Garnets And Tourmalines

    By far, the best combination for polishing garnets and tourmalines is a phenolic lap and an aluminium oxide (Al2O3) abrasive. I’ve often used and recommended tin laps and oxide polishes for these stones, but tin laps are just too expensive. I’ve…

  • Just Ask Jeff: How to Polish Kunzite

    How Do I Polish Kunzite (Spodumene)? With great difficulty… sometimes. I have had pieces of Kunzite that cut with no problem and I have cut some Kunzite’s that were nothing but problems. All the rough is different and it is hard to tell how…

  • Just Ask Jeff: Schiller Sunstone… Threads, Spots, Sheets & Clouds?

    Schiller Sunstone… Threads, Spots, Sheets & Clouds? Oregon Sunstone comes in many varieties. Colors, color with schiller, copper schiller and champagne. Left: One of the prettiest types of schiller Sunstone in my opinion. As you can…

  • Just Ask Jeff: How to Polish Halite

    How Do I Polish Halite (salt crystal)? A while ago there were a few “experts” cutting this (they claimed)… Here is how I do it. Stick it in your mouth, then flush liberally with 190 proof grain alcohol, if you’ve got any left after the last…

  • Just Ask Jeff: How do I polish Sapphires?

    How do I polish Sapphires? There are several ways to polish Sapphires, it really depends on what you are cutting for… fun or contests. Be sure and read my article on cutting “Simple Heart” if you are interested in seeing how I cut…

  • Just Ask Jeff: How to Polish Quartz & Beryl?

    How Do I Polish Quartz & Beryl? The most important thing about polishing Quartz and Beryl is to have a very good pre-polish on the stone before you attempt to polish. Rough cut your stone like you normally would. I use a well worn…

  • Turkish Purple Jade Jewelry
    What is Turkish Purple Jade and How Can it be Used in Jewelry?

    The commercial part of the lapidary business favors new mine finds and exotic or rare materials. As carvers, we are drawn to these materials for the above reasons and we carve our pieces with the anticipation that the market will also enjoy and…

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