Corundum Treatments


Introduction

Since the supply of fine quality rubies and sapphires is limited, many techniques have been developed to enhance their appearance. In fact, no other gem species is subjected to as many types of treatment as corundum. Heat treatment is accepted as a common practice and has little effect on value, where other treatments have considerable impact. Some rubies are worth as little as 5% of similar appearing, untreated gems.

Some of the treatments are very subtle, invisible even with a loupe or microscope. To make matters worse, many treated rubies and sapphires will have natural inclusions. You have to examine them very carefully to tell if they are treated or not. Taking the value of these gems into consideration, finding evidence of treatment can be critical.

Below is an outline of testing procedures. Though difficult, they must be used on all rubies and sapphires. First, here is a review of corundum treatments.

Heat Treatment

Silk in untreated sapphire

Stress fractures

Most corundums have rutile inclusions that are in the form of long thin crystals. These are so fine they are referred to silk. Rutile melts at a temperature slightly below that of the surrounding corundum. By heating it to the proper temperature and with a …

Premium Article

This is a Premium Article. Please become a member to read this entire article and gain access to hundreds more like it.

Membership options

Full Article Details


Content Length 3066 words
Reading time 15 min 20 sec

Here's what you get if you unlock this article:

  • Introduction
    • Heat Treatment
    • Diffusion Treatment
    • Thin Film Coating
    • Irradiation
    • Beryllium Treated or Lattice Diffusion
    • Fracture Filling
  • Testing Procedures
    • Examination with Magnification
  • Immersion Procedures
  • More Detail
    • Self Test
    • Answers

Plus, additional member-only benefits:

  • Exclusive access to other premium articles and courses
  • Unlimited access to our gem pricing guide
  • Participate in our member-only forums
Membership options