pink-red Burmese rubypink-red Burmese ruby

What’s the Difference Between Rubies and Pink Sapphires?

How do gemologists distinguish between rubies and pink sapphires? Learn about the chemistry of corundum and the history of the color pink.

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HomeLearning CenterGemologyAn Introduction to GemologyWhat’s the Difference Between Rubies and Pink Sapphires?
What's the difference between rubies and pink sapphires? According to one old joke, that depends on whether you're the buyer or the seller. In fact, there is no general agreement on where to draw the line, but that line is certainly pink.
pink-red Burmese ruby
Think the difference between red and pink is clear-cut in gemology? The description of this beautiful 2.04-ct Burmese ruby begins: "Color is a great Ruby Red, though the cert indicates a Pink Red. After seeing some of their color descriptions of spessartite, rhodolite, and other gemstones certed by this lab, we are not concerned that they used the term Pink!" © All That Glitters. Used with permission. (NOTE: All That Glitters purchased all its Myanmar rubies before the 2008 embargo on importing Myanmar ruby and jadeite into the United States. In October 2016, the US lifted its embargo).

Defining Ruby and Sapphire

Scientifically, rubies and sapphires are simply varieties of corundum, a crystalline form of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), with impurities or trace elements such as iron, titanium, or chromium. These impurities create the wide range of colors found in corundum crystals: gray, brown, yellow, green, blue, purple, red, … and pink.

Ruby is defined as red corundum. The presence of chromium is largely what makes a corundum gemstone red. All other varieties of corundum, anything not red, are classified as sapphire. (Sapphires may contain a mix of chromium, titanium, and iron traces). Although popularly associated with the color blue, sapphires include all non-red colored corundum gems. It's not surprising, then, that pink is the boundary line between rubies and sapphires since pink is commonly considered a light tone of red.

Interested in this topic?

This article is also a part of our Ruby Specialist Mini Course, in the unit Introduction to Ruby.

Describing Color Involves Both Objective and Subjective Terms

Color can be quantified scientifically in terms of hue, tone or lightness, and saturation or intensity. Recently, advances in colorimeters have also addressed the unique problems gemstone optical qualities, such as pleochroism and transparency, have posed to standard color-order systems.

So why is there no general agreement on the difference between rubies and pink sapphires?

purplish pink sapphire
3.06-ct cushion-shaped purplish pink oval sapphire. © All That Glitters. Used with permission.

Although you can measure color, what one chooses to call a particular set of color measurements is still largely subjective. It comes down to the cultural and historical question: what is pink? In a fascinating article, Richard Hughes observes that before the 20th century, pink was considered a "light red" and some rubies were indeed described as "pink rubies." Over the course of the 20th century, "someone decided that pink was not red," and the first references to pink sapphires appeared.

Magenta Pink Sapphire
1.15-ct oval magenta pink sapphire, Sri Lanka. © All That Glitters. Used with permission.

How Do Professional Gemologists Distinguish Rubies and Pink Sapphires?

Professional gemology associations differ over the distinction between rubies and pink sapphires. Although the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) acknowledges historical and cultural variations on the division (or lack thereof) between red and pink color, it classifies as rubies only those corundum gems with "dominant" red hue. All other corundum is sapphire. On the other hand, the International Colored Gemstone Association (ICA) considers any red corundum gemstone, regardless of depth or intensity, a ruby.

The International Gem Society (IGS) acknowledges no general agreement on the difference between rubies and pink sapphires and has information on both "pinkish" rubies as well as pink sapphires.

Will the Demand for Pink Sapphires Change How We Distinguish These Gems?

Jewelry enthusiasts have highly prized sapphires throughout history. However, the demand for "blood red" rubies has been and continues to be exceptional. Gem-quality rubies are rare, much rarer than diamonds. The desire to find, cut, sell, and own rubies has created a demand for a restrictive definition. This may account in part for the rise of the "pink sapphire" category. This may be why buyers want to buy sapphires and sellers want to sell rubies.

However, the consumer demand for pink sapphires has recently increased, according to David Federman (who also challenges the argument that pink and red were ever considered the same color). "Today, pink sapphire needs no favors or apologies," and "hot pink" sapphires are in demand, he writes.

Could an increasing demand for pink gems change the boundary between rubies and pink sapphires? Only time and the market can tell.

Neon Screaming Pinkish Red Ruby
A fitting image to close a discussion of the difference between rubies and pink sapphires: a "Neon Screaming Pinkish Red Ruby," 1.97 cts. © All That Glitters. Used with permission.

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