Step 1: Introduction to Gemology

Lesson 22

Facets, those “geometrically arranged, flat surfaces” that cover faceted gemstones, all play specific roles in a gem’s optical performance. When expertly cut, facets not only create beautiful patterns on the gem, they also help it shine. Sometimes, literally. Different types of gemstone facets have specific names, too.
gemstone facets - crown view, ametrine

Barion octagon-cut ametrine, 4.48 cts. © Dan Stair Custom Gemstones. Used with permission.

If you’re new to the art of gem cutting, you’ll become quite familiar with these terms as you learn to facet gems. However, all gem enthusiasts, especially gem buyers, can benefit from learning about the types and functions of different gemstone facets.

Table of Contents:

  • The Three Principal Areas of a Faceted Gem
    • Girdle
    • Crown
    • Pavilion
  • Types of Gemstone Facets
    • Mains
    • Table Facet
    • Break Facets
    • Star Facets
    • Pavilion Facets
    • Culet
    • Keel
  • Where Gemstone Facets Meet
    • Meet
    • Meetpoint
  • Not all Gemstone Facets are Flat

gemstone facets - names and illustration

The Three Principal Areas of a Faceted Gem


The widest part of the gem, the girdle defines its outline. When viewed from the side, however, the girdle is usually fairly thin. Faceters cut girdles to help set the stone in jewelry.


For both cabochons and faceted gems, the top is called the crown. For faceted gems, this means the area above the girdle. Usually, you’ll see this area when viewing the “face” of a gem set in jewelry.


The bottom of a faceted gem, the area below the girdle, is called the pavilion.

Types of Gemstone Facets


The largest facets are called mains. (Some gems have larger table facets). There are both pavilion mains and crown mains.

gemstone facets - mains, smoky quartz

Smoky Quartz, 22 cts, Audrey Lynn Mine, Cahuilla Mtn., Riverside County, California, USA. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

Table Facet

The large, horizontal facet on the top, the table facet acts as a window into the interior of the gem.

Break Facets

Adjoining the girdle, the break facets scatter light, which creates more scintillation or tiny flashes of light. There are both crown and pavilion break facets.

gemstone facets - breaks, andalusite

Cushion-cut andalusite, 4.07 cts, Bahia, Brazil. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

Star Facets

The “top row” of facets, star facets adjoin the table facet. Along with the other crown facets, they serve to control the entry and exit of light from the gem.

gemstone facets - stars, rhodochrosite

Rhodochrosite, 3.55 cts, Capillitas Mine, Andalgala, Catamarca, Argentina. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

Pavilion Facets

The pavilion facets are designed to reflect the light back to the viewer. This enhances both brilliance, the amount of light a gem returns, and dispersion, the colorful “fires” that seem to emanate from within.


The point at the bottom of the pavilion is called a culet. Some gems have tiny, flat culets instead of points. This helps prevent chipping.


Some faceted gems have neither a pointed nor flat culet. Some cuts, like ovals and emerald cuts, have a keel at the bottom of the pavilion, an edge like the bottom of some boats.

Photo 1 shows the girdle and culet of a re-cut spinel gemstone. In Photo 2, gem cutter Dan Stair has added pavilion break facets as well as eight little facets around the culet to enhance the gem’s scintillation. Photo 3 shows the pavilion facets partly polished. © Dan Stair Custom Gemstones. Used with permission.

Where Gemstone Facets Meet


The junction of two facets.


The junction of three or more facets.

Not all Gemstone Facets are Flat

Facets may start out as flat surfaces, but gem cutters can cut them by hand or machine into concave surfaces, too. You can read about curved facets in our article on gem cutting styles.