African Paraíba TourmalineAfrican Paraíba Tourmaline

Tourmaline Specialist Mini Course

African Paraíba Tourmaline

During the early 2000s, a great deal of African paraíba tourmaline rough was mixed and sold with Brazilian material. It's very difficult to identify the origin of paraíba tourmaline rough chemically because there are only slight differences in the materials. Fortunately, I acquired some African paraíba tourmaline rough around 2000. These stones are from a small find in Nigeria (Oyo Ibadani - Aare Mines).

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African Paraiba Rough - 30.44 carats
30.44-ct top color African paraíba tourmaline rough, Nigeria.

The Discovery of Paraíba Tourmalines in Africa

Paraíba tourmalines were first discovered in Paraíba, Brazil in 1989 and caused quite a sensation in the gem world.  For a time, these vivid-colored, copper-bearing tourmalines were only found in Brazil. After the discovery of tourmalines of similar color and composition in Nigeria around 2000 and Mozambique in 2005, the gem industry generally used the term "paraíba tourmaline" as a trade name for copper-bearing elbaite tourmalines regardless of origin. The American Gem Trade Association and other gemological organizations have adopted this usage.

African Paraíba Tourmaline Colors

The colors of these African stones are truly spectacular. They are absolutely top quality. The pictures don't do justice to the teal, turquoise, and neon blue colors in these gems. It's just hard to believe.

  • Nigerian paraíba tourmaline rough, 65.44 carats
    65.44-ct paraíba tourmaline rough, Nigeria.
  • Nigerian paraíba tourmaline rough, 65.44 carats - 2
    65.44-ct paraíba tourmaline rough, Nigeria.
  • Nigerian tourmaline rough, 24.05 carats
    24.05-ct paraíba tourmaline rough, Nigeria.


    I like the natural colors as they are, but it's common for African paraíba to be heated just like the Brazilian material. Heating makes the specimens lighter in color and tends to yield basically a uniform color across stones. However, this treatment also creates the bright "neon" tones that are in high demand. The temperatures used during the heating process remain a closely guarded secret. Nobody I knew was talking when I asked.

    The material found around 1999 or 2000 amounted to very little. I have never seen African rough like this again and probably never will.

    Jeff R. Graham

    The late Jeff Graham was a prolific faceter, creator of many original faceting designs, and the author of several highly-regarded instructional faceting books such as Gram Faceting Designs.

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