Home » Gemstones » Calcareous Concretions Value, Price, and Jewelry Information
14k yellow gold ring with an oval, mottled pink conch pearl, 10 x 9.2 mm, in a textured, wirework cage setting. Photo courtesy of liveauctioneers.com and Hindman.
Several species of marine mollusks produce stony growths called calcareous concretions or non-nacreous pearls. Varieties such as conch pearls, tridacna pearls, and others are frequently used in jewelry. Although not true pearls, they can still make beautiful gems.
Start an IGS Membership today for full access to our price guide (updated monthly).
Prices of pearls are based on several quality factors. The values provided in this guide are for round cultured pearls. Baroque pearls are about 25-35% the cost of round pearls. Natural pearls are extremely rare, and largely limited to auction and collector’s markets. These can be worth 10 to 20 times an equivalent Akoya cultured pearl.
Generally, calcareous concretions are valued much like pearls. Brighter colors and stronger saturations command higher prices. Rounds and ovals are more desirable, and other shapes are judged based on how symmetrical they appear. Smoother surfaces, higher luster, and larger sizes also increase value.
The calcareous concretions most commonly encountered in jewelry are conch pearls from the queen conch (Strombus gigas), tridacna pearls from the giant clam (genus Tridacna), melo pearls from the bailer shell snail (Melo melo), and quahog pearls from quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). Scallop pearls are relatively recent arrivals on the market.
Occasionally, pen shell mollusks (genus Pinna) may produce pink or red concretions. Edible oysters (such as Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea virginica) may produce white or purple stones. Many members of the clam family (Bivalvia) can produce calcareous concretions of white, brown, and light to dark purple. However, consumers rarely consider them attractive enough to value as gems.
What’s the Difference Between Calcareous Concretions and True Pearls?
Chemically, calcareous concretions are closely related to pearls, consisting primarily of aragonite, calcite, conchiolin, and water. However, these growths are coarser and lack nacre. Nevertheless, many calcareous concretions have other desirable qualities for jewelry enthusiasts and gem collectors.
While the non-nacreous pearl in this three-stone diamond ring has a round shape like a classic true pearl, it also shows a faint, flame-like structure on its surface. This effect is due to the arrangement of aragonite in non-nacreous pearls and isn’t found in true, nacre-bearing pearls. Photo courtesy of liveauctioneers.com and Fellows.
Conch pearls (pronounced conk) lack an iridescent nacre layer. However, they’re rare and expensive organic gems. Prices can run as high as $9,000 per carat. The queen conch (Strombus gigas) is found primarily in the Florida Straits and the Bahamian and Caribbean Seas. Once common, their popularity as a culinary delicacy caused excessive harvesting.
Bailer shell snails (Melo melo), also called Indian volute snails, live in the waters off South East Asia (roughly from Myanmar to Indonesia). Although predators, these rare snails are considered delicacies themselves. Unfortunately, cooking damages any melo pearls that may rest inside the hapless mollusks. In Myanmar, the shell is called a “coconut shell” (ohn kayu) and the gems “coconut pearls” (ohn pale).
Mercenaria mercenaria clams off the coast of New England produce quahog pearls. These calcareous concretions can grow in a wide variety of shapes, in colors ranging from white to brown, lilac, and deep purple. Some may show color zoning.
Marine scallops native to the coasts of Baja California produce the calcareous concretions called scallop pearls. Their shapes range from round to highly irregular.
Conch, tridacna, and melo pearls have a distinctive, flame-like pattern. Scallop pearls have a mosaic pattern. Imitations haven’t duplicated these patterns, so their identification is very simple and straight forward.
Because of their similar patterns, color best distinguishes conch and melo pearls. While conch pearls are primarily pink, melo pearls are usually orange. Their top color is an intense orange described as “papaya.” Melo pearl colors range from near white to pale yellow through yellowish orange, orange, and brownish orange, with “porcelain-like” luster.
Melo pearl shapes range from baroque through oval to spherical.
Melo pearls are not light stable. Their colors will fade when exposed to ultraviolet light, including what comes from the sun. Pale colors likely signify the gems have been displayed outside for some time.
In addition to their mosaic pattern, scallop pearls have a unique appearance. Colors vary from cream, salmon, and mauve, with distinct brown tones, an almost metallic luster, and a chatoyant sheen.
Calcareous concretions may grow very large. Melo pearls can reach over 200 millimeters in length. Scallop pearls may weigh up to 40 carats.
The largest known calcareous concretion is the famous “Pearl of Lao Tzu,” also known as the “Pearl of Allah.” Found in the seas off the island of Palawan in the Philippines, this tridacna pearl weighs 14.1 pounds and measures 9.45 inches in diameter. Wilburn Dowell Cobb, the American who acquired the pearl in 1939, wrote an incredible (if romanticized) account of its discovery. (For the record, giant clams have never been known to drown humans).
Learn more about the odd and ongoing saga of this huge gem in our article on seven famous pearls.
A replica of the “Pearl of Lao Tzu,” on display in a shop in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Photo by hgrobe. Licensed under CC By 3.0.
The color fade of melo pearls is gradual. Don’t worry too much about brief exposures. However, reserve melo pearl jewelry for evening wear and special occasions. What these gems lose under sunlight they make up in hardness. At a 5, melo pearls are the hardest of all pearls, nacreous or not.