What is a Trapiche Emerald?


trapiche emerald - close up
“Primagem trapiche emerald.” Photo by Jeffery Bergman, © Primagem. Used with permission.

Many books and articles cover the beautiful emerald, the most well-known member of the beryl family. You can learn about its rich green tones, the jardin or “garden” of inclusions that often help identify a stone’s origins, its unique cutting properties, and the treatments it receives. However, you’ll find very little information about the extremely rare trapiche emerald.

trapiche emerald - hexagonal core
Note the hexagonal core of this trapiche emerald, typical for the growth of emeralds. Photo courtesy of Marc Gering, JazzanJewels.

These emeralds get their name from the trapiche (pronounced tra·PEE·che), a grinding wheel used in Colombia, South America. In the regions where these gems are often found, people use these wheels to process sugarcane. As you can see in the above photo, some of these gems resemble a spoked wheel with a hexagonal core.

Please note, however, not all of these gems have that hexagonal “hub.” Some believe trapiche emeralds from one mining area display the core, while those from another don’t. Based on my research and conversations with dealers, the presence or lack of a core doesn’t appear to indicate origin.

Despite its starlike appearance, this unique “spoked” pattern isn’t a case of asterism. However, trapiche emeralds may reveal chatoyancy, a “cat’s eye” effect. Parallel growth tube inclusions can create a cat’s eye in the “pie-shaped” sections as well as, rarely, along the length of whole cabbed trapiche emeralds. Expert lapidaries can orient and cut these stones to bring out this effect.

trapiche emerald - cat's eye
“Primagem trapiche emerald showing cat’s eye in segments.” Photo by Jeffery Bergman, © Primagem. Used with permission.

How Does a Trapiche Emerald Form?

During the formation of an emerald crystal, black carbon impurities may enter the gemstone mix. Because of emerald’s hexagonal crystal structure, these impurities may fill in at the crystal junctions, forming a six-point radial pattern. In some trapiche emeralds, inclusions of albite, quartz, carbonaceous materials, or lutite may outline the hexagonal emerald core. From there, they extend in spokes that divide the surrounding emerald material into six trapezoidal sectors.

The central, tapered emerald core first grows under hydrothermal conditions. Should these conditions slow or even stop for some time, impurities may enter the mix. As growth conditions resume, both emerald and, for example, albite may form. The hexagonal prism faces of the core crystal can maintain their uniform growth, producing pure emerald. However, albite fills the areas growing from the edges, between the prism faces. This results in six sectors of clear emerald and six of a combination, predominantly albite with some emerald. Thus, the central core and the six surrounding trapezoidal sectors of a trapiche emerald comprise a single, untwinned crystal.”

trapiche emerald - Somewhere in the Rainbow Collection
“Somewhere in the Rainbow Collection,” trapiche emerald. Photo by Jeff Scovil, © Primagem. Used with permission.

Often, the hexagonal core may be colorless, transparent beryl. However, it can be green. In a 1970 analysis of Muzo, Colombia’s trapiche emeralds in American Mineralogist, K. Nassau and K. A. Jackson found their principal coloring agent was vanadium.”

Trapiche Emerald Gallery

With or without a core, trapiche emeralds make lovely gems.

trapiche emerald - no core
A trapiche emerald with no central core. Photo courtesy of Marc Gering, JazzanJewels.

Let your imagination run free when you gaze upon these precious gems. For example, in the stone below, I see a spider.

trapiche emerald - "spider"
Photo courtesy of Marc Gering, JazzanJewels.

In this gem, I see a moth.

trapiche emerald - moth
Photo courtesy of Marc Gering, JazzanJewels.

Trapiche emeralds can get very large and weigh several grams.

trapiche emerald - rough
Photographs courtesy of Mr. Farooq Hashmi, Intimate Gems.

Sources of Trapiche Emerald

People long believed only Colombia produced trapiche emeralds, at the Muzo and Peñas Blancas mines.” However, these gems have also been found in Brazil. In addition, a light grayish-green beryl, 13.74 cts, with a trapiche-like structure was discovered in Madagascar.

Trapiche Emerald Treatments

Visitors to the Colombian mines have reported recently the sale of obviously treated material presented as natural. Keep in mind that emeralds commonly receive various treatments and enhancements. Like other emeralds, trapiche emeralds are frequently oiled or impregnated with epoxy.

Imitation or simulated trapiches do exist, such as a colorless beryl with a plastic coating imitating a trapiche pattern.

Marc Gering, JazzanJewels.

Wilma Van Der Giessen Collection - trapiche emerald
“Wilma Van Der Giessen Collection,” trapiche emeralds. Photo by Jeffery Bergman, © Primagem. Used with permission.