scratch test - quartz vs calcite
scratch test - quartz vs calcite

Destructive Gemstone Testing


Destructive gemstone testing, done carefully, can help gemologists with difficult gem identifications. Learn the right techniques with our 5-part series.

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Why do geologists have an easier time identifying gems than gemologists? Because they can more readily conduct destructive gemstone testing. Geologists can scratch gems to test their hardness, check their reaction to acids, and even put them in a torch's flame to identify them. However, with care, gemologists can also conduct these tests.
Cuff with turquoise stones - destructive gemstone testing
Turquoise stones are sometimes coated with thin layers of wax to improve their appearance. A hot point test on a tiny, inconspicuous spot can make any wax present bead like perspiration on the stone without actually touching its surface or damaging it. Destructive gemstone testing, like a hot point test, is a "last resort" for gemologists trying to make a difficult gem or treatment identification. When done carefully by a professional, these tests shouldn't lessen the value of a gem or jewelry piece. Turquoise cuff with vintage beads. Jewelry and photo by Melissa Ingram. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

These destructive tests are informative but, obviously, they can damage the gems and reduce their value. Gemologists normally use complex optical and microscopic examinations to identify unknown gemstones without damaging them. Unfortunately, standard gemological tests occasionally fall short of positive identification. In these cases, gemologists must resort to destructive gemstone testing. With great care, however, these tests can be conducted in a limited manner without diminishing the value of the stone.

Destructive Gemstone Testing Series

Our five-part series on destructive gemstone tests offers concise explanations of the principal procedures.

scratch test - quartz vs calcite
A material with a Mohs hardness of 7 will scratch any material with a lower hardness. For example, this quartz (7) scratches a piece of calcite (3). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Donald Clark, CSM IMG

The late Donald Clark, CSM founded the International Gem Society in 1998. Donald started in the gem and jewelry industry in 1976. He received his formal gemology training from the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and the American Society of Gemcutters (ASG). The letters “CSM” after his name stood for Certified Supreme Master Gemcutter, a designation of Wykoff’s ASG which has often been referred to as the doctorate of gem cutting. The American Society of Gemcutters only had 54 people reach this level. Along with dozens of articles for leading trade magazines, Donald authored the book “Modern Faceting, the Easy Way.”

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