Malachite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information

“Malachitalump,” carved elephant in malachite from Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Photo by Kevin Walsh. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

Malachite

Malachite is a beautiful decorative stone. Its rich, patterned coloration in shades of green is unique among gems. Malachite’s low hardness makes it easy to work, though it still takes a polish very well. These qualities, combined with ready availability, make malachite a popular choice for lapidary artistry.

Malachite Value

Malachite is abundant in its typical forms, so even the best specimens are modestly priced. Pieces showing an unusual crystal habit, distinctive pattern, or chatoyancy will have higher values. Rocks consisting of malachite and other colorful copper minerals in lovely combinations generally command higher prices than pure malachites. The value of carvings and ornamental objects hinges primarily on the size and artistry of the work.

malachite ring

Malachite ring. Photo by Christina Rutz. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

The International Gem Society (IGS) has a list of businesses offering gemstone appraisal services.

Malachite Value via Gem Price Guide

Accompanying value information:
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Cabochons All sizes
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Malachite Information

Data Value
Name Malachite
Heat Sensitivity Very sensitive
Formula Cu2CO3(OH)2
Etymology From the Ancient Greek malache for mallow (an herb plant), in allusion to its color, or malakos, meaning "soft."
Occurrence In the oxidized portions of copper ore bodies, with azurite and cuprite. Nodules, cone shapes, stalactitic, crusts.
Inclusions Needle-like crystals
Colors Green (various shades due to admixed clay in massive material), dark green.
Fracture Uneven, fibrous, subconchoidal
Hardness 3.5-4.5
Cleavage Perfect 1 direction
Wearability Good
Crystallography Monoclinic. Crystals are prismatic, usually small; also massive, sometimes banded; stalactitic; as crusts.
Refractive Index 1.85 (average)
Birefringence 0.254
Luminescence None
Pleochroism Colorless/yellow-green/deep green.
Optics = 1.655; β = 1.875; γ = 1.909. Biaxial (-), 2V = 43°. Mean index reading of 1.85 on massive material.
Optic Sign Biaxial -
Luster Adamantine in crystals; vitreous; fibrous; dull.
Specific Gravity 4.05 (as low as 3.6 in admixtures or when fibrous).
Enhancements Rarely, lower quality pieces stabilized with plastic resins, surface polish with wax.
Typical Treatments Infusion/Impregnation
Transparency Translucent to opaque
Phenomena Chatoyancy
Luminescence Present No
Malachite

Malachite. Photo by Ryan Somma. Licensed under CC By-SA 2.0.

Comments

This vivid green gem gets its color from copper. Invariably associated with copper ore deposits, malachite ranks as a minor copper ore, with 58% copper content. Its recovery generally occurs, at least on a large scale, as a sidelight of copper mining.

Technically, malachite is a “secondary mineral,” which means it’s created by a chemical reaction between minerals that have already formed, rather than by a simple one-step process. Malachite may form when water containing carbon dioxide or dissolved carbonate minerals interacts with preexisting copper-containing rocks or when solutions containing dissolved copper minerals interact with carbonate rocks.

Malachite’s characteristic swirling and concentric band patterns are a result of this formation process. These bands reflect the waxing and waning of the solutions necessary for formation and the changes in their chemical content. Most commonly, the stone occurs in massive form as a microcrystalline aggregate, in lumps, or as crust on other rocks.

"Copper clump" nodule, Democratic Republic of the Congo

A “copper clump” malachite from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Photo by Mike Beauregard. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

History and Uses

malachite vase

Malachite vase, Yekaterinburg Lapidary Work, designed by Ivan Hallberg (1841-42). Photo by Larry Koester. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

Malachite may have been mined in Egypt as early as 4,000 BCE. Not only was it used as a gemstone and ornamental material, the stone was ground into pigments for painting and cosmetics. Not until the Industrial Revolution were synthetic pigments created that could rival its color. Restoration experts still use malachite pigment formulas for authenticity when conserving old paintings. Unfortunately, this beauty can also be hazardous. The copper content of the dust released from grinding malachite makes it toxic to breathe.

Today, workers involved in the mining and fashioning of the stone should wear protective respiratory gear. Keeping the rough wet also keeps dust to a minimum.

Many cultures throughout history have prized malachite. The green stone has been used in protective amulets since ancient times. Perhaps its greatest appreciators were the Russian royals of the 19th century. They had dining sets, huge sculptures, vases, and even paneling made from it. You can take a virtual tour of the celebrated “Malachite Room” in the Winter Palace at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia.

The Victorians were great admirers of opaque jewelry stones, and malachite was one of their favorites. Jewelers often used this material in small carvings, beads, and cabochons set in silver and, occasionally, gold.

malachite jewelry

Malachite jewelry. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Malachite Pieces

Lapidary artists use this stone extensively to make cabochons, beads, boxes, inlays, and carvings of all kinds. With great care, skilled artists can turn malachite on a lathe to create goblets and candlesticks.

Facetable crystals would be microscopic in size, since larger crystals are too opaque to let light through. A faceted malachite gem larger than ½ carat would be opaque.

Malachite can appeal to the gem lover as well as anyone interested in nature’s wonders. Mineral and gemstone collectors compete to acquire prime specimens in some of the stone’s rarer habits. Some of the most desired forms are: botryoidal masses, stalactites or slices cut from them, and pieces with splayed-out clusters of needle-like (acicular) crystals showing a velvety chatoyancy. Fibrous aggregates (packed masses of crystals) can also take a high polish.

Malachites sometimes form in combination with other copper-bearing minerals. Blue-green chrysocolla, dark blue azurite, or brick-red cuprite can create rocks of unsurpassed beauty when combined with malachite’s forest green.

azurite/malachite

Azurite and malachite. Photo by Lisa Ann Yount. Public Domain.

Identifying Characteristics

Synthetics

Although scientists have synthesized malachite for research purposes, this material isn’t found commercially. The synthetic material costs far more than the abundant, natural mineral.

Enhancements

Malachite rarely receives any treatments. However, lower quality, less compact pieces may be stabilized with plastic resins or given a surface polish with wax.

Sources

The majority of malachite rough comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Namibia, Russia and the American Southwest.

  • Australia: N.S.W., Broken Hill.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo: banded material, also stalactitic, most familiar on marketplace.
  • Namibia: Tsumeb, magnificent large crystals.
  • Russia: Mednorudyansk, immense masses, some up to 50 tons! Much of it good for cutting. Also from mine at Nizhne-Tagilsk.
  • United States: Arizona, at Bisbee and Gila, other localities; New Mexico; Tennessee; Utah.
  • Zambia.

Malachite, Democratic Republic of the Congo (~ 4 inches high). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Stone Sizes

Cabochons and carvings from banded material can be virtually any size. Stalactites can occur up to several feet in length. Slabs have even been used as paneling in palaces. Facetable crystals are virtually nonexistent. Any cut gem would be very small, less than 2 carats, but massive aggregates can weigh tons.

Care

Malachite is soft, somewhat brittle, and sensitive to both heat and acids. It requires gentle care. Mechanical cleaning methods, such as ultrasonic or steam cleaning, aren’t recommended. Use in rings, bracelets, or other jewelry that may receive rough treatment or constant wear isn’t advisable. Use in earrings, brooches, pendants, and tie pins should pose no special problems.

Don’t use any acidic cleaners on malachite jewelry. Although faceters should take precautions when cutting malachites, wearing finished jewelry pieces should pose no health hazards.

Consult our gemstone jewelry care guide for recommended cleaning methods.

pendant

Moving malachite pendant. Photo by viviannedraper. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

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