Unique Gem Materials for Jewelry Design

unique gem materials for jewelry design - gembone and meteorite rings
These rings incorporate unusual gems. On the left, a pallasite meteorite capped with colorless sapphire is inlaid in a green gold ring with a crater-inspired band. The colorful gembone in the ring on the right is also capped with colorless sapphire. “Sapphire Capped Inlay” by Jessa and Mark Anderson. Licensed under CC By 2.0.

Some gems have an appeal beyond their appearance. Long-extinct creatures, toxic minerals, and even materials from space make for interesting pieces sure to start a conversation. For history buffs, a Viking “sun stone” would fascinate beyond its beauty. Or, using flexible minerals, a creative designer could construct a one-of-a-kind piece of jewelry. With more consumers looking for something that stands apart, consider these unique gem materials in your next jewelry design.

Fossils as Unique Gem Materials

Many people’s experience with fossils is limited to museums and shark’s teeth. However, some fossils make for great jewelry! Each fossil tells a unique story.

Dinosaur Bone

When most people think of fossils, they think of dinosaurs. The human fascination with these long-extinct giants extends well beyond museums. Though the reconstructed skeletons are a sight to behold, when cut and polished, gem-grade bone makes a unique and colorful jewelry material. As the bone becomes fossil, minerals (often colorful agate) replace its cells. The resulting patterns make for interesting, unique jewelry pieces. Though most gembone is legal, smugglers sometimes transport this material across borders. Always purchase from a trusted seller to ensure that your gembone is legal.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - gembone
The attractive pattern of the colorful gembone piece in this ring will surely command attention. “14k with Multicolor Gembone Inlay Ring” by Jessa and Mark Anderson. Licensed under CC By 2.0.


Ammonites are marine molluscs that died out with the dinosaurs. Ammolite is gem-grade, iridescent ammonite shell, and occurs only in Late Cretaceous sediments in the Rocky Mountains. Made primarily of aragonite, the same material as pearl, ammolite can display any color of the rainbow with bright iridescence. Intense red, orange, and green are the most common, but bright blue, yellow, and purple also occur. Quality factors include the number of colors seen, iridescence, and the degree to which the specimen can be rotated with visible color play. Ammolite jewelry will certainly receive many compliments.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - ammolite aurora pendant
A large piece of colorful ammolite makes for a great statement piece. Tsavorite garnets and canary diamonds complement the green and yellow hues of the ammolite in this pendant. “Aurora Pendant” © Martha Seely. Ammolite mined by KORITE. Used with permission.


Fossil tree sap, petrified over the last 30 million years or more, is another unique jewelry material. Pieces of amber containing insect remains are common collector’s items. However, pieces with rare insect species can hold high value. Buyer beware. Some dealers add modern insects to reconstituted amber to increase profits.  Unless you’re an entomologist who can tell the difference, make sure you deal with a trusted seller.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - insect in amber
It looks like an ant to me, but this insect represents an entirely new order in the animal kingdom. “New Order,” photo by George Poinar, courtesy of Oregon State University. Licensed under CC By-SA 2.0.

Toxic Gem Materials

If you’re looking for something with a touch of danger, a toxic gem may be right up your alley. Arsenic, lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium are responsible for many deaths and environmental catastrophes. However, when handled safely and responsibly, these unique gem materials may be cut and set into an assembled stone that’s safe for wear.

For any toxic material, carefully review its Material Safety Data Sheet for recommended handling guidelines. While skin contact is fine for many substances, as long as you wash your hands, others are skin irritants or can be absorbed through the skin. Always avoid breathing in dust from these minerals, as particles can remain in your lungs and cause long-term health problems.


Long used as a poison, realgar, or arsenic sulfide, is not something you want to ingest. While rare in gem quality and difficult to facet, the intense red to orange-red color of realgar has made its way into some gem collections. With proper precautions, realgar could make an assembled jewelry stone. However, when handling this gem, avoid contact with water or steam, which can release toxic fumes. Furthermore, with a low melting point, avoid heat sources. Be sure to store realgar away from light sources, as this can cause the mineral to decompose into pararealgar.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - realgar
A very gemmy crystal of realgar. “Realgar (Shimen Mine, Hunan Province, China)” by James St John. Licensed under CC By 2.0.


Faceted cinnabar looks like bright red candy, but tasting it is definitely not recommended. Ancient civilizations used cinnabar as a pigment, and many “cinnabar” items are, in fact, wood covered in a cinnabar lacquer. Since research has revealed mercury’s toxicity, some jewelers have opted to coat wood with other red pigments to imitate this gem.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - cinnabar button
Button coated with cinnabar lacquer. “Cinnabar button from Peach State Button Club” by Peach State Button Club. Licensed under CC By 3.0.


Red-orange to yellow-orange in color, this mineral can have bright, saturated color. Crocoite posses little danger from simple skin contact. Nevertheless, it’s still a good idea to wash your hands after handling. As an assembled gem, its toxicity and softness won’t be an issue for jewelry wear, and the bright color of this gem could shine.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - crocoite
A brightly colored crocoite crystal. “Crocoïte (Dundas Tasmanie – Australie) 3” by Géry Parent. Licensed under CC By-SA 3.0.

Niccolite (Nickeline)

A double whammy, nickel arsenide is highly toxic if inhaled, ingested, or comes in contact with your eyes. Prolonged skin contact isn’t recommended, but normal handling should be safe as long as you wash your hands. This metallic mineral takes a beautiful polish and makes for excellent cabochon or carving material. A clear coat of nail polish will ensure that the niccolite stone isn’t in contact with your skin. It has the added bonus of preventing tarnish from moisture exposure as well.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - niccolite nickeline
A fascinating polished specimen of niccolite (nickeline) veins transitioning to quartz veins in a gabbro matrix. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Used with permission.

Unique Gem Materials from Space

As only a small speck in space, Earth holds very few of the universe’s gems. Still, here on Earth, the materials with extraterrestrial origins are rare. The rarity and natural beauty of meteorite make it a novel jewelry material. In addition, some gems form from meteorite impacts. While technically terrestrial, glass pieces that form in impact craters are lasting reminders that there’s more to this universe than our pale blue dot.


Meteoroids are sometimes trapped by Earth’s gravity and fall to the ground as meteorites. Their compositions can vary widely. Iron meteorites, comprising approximately 6% of meteorites, are most commonly used in jewelry. With an attractive Widmanstӓtten pattern arising from slow cooling in space, the texture of iron meteorite will certainly attract attention.

Meteorite and Wood Wedding Band by Jewelry by Johan. Licensed under CC By 3.0.

Most meteorites are silicate-rich and may contain minerals unknown on Earth. Though used less often in jewelry, slices and cabochons of these specimens can reveal the attractive minerals within.

Stony-metal meteorites occur more rarely. These have beautiful silicate minerals surrounded by an iron matrix. Though valued for its scarcity, this material may pose a challenge during polishing.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - Pallasite Fukang
A slice of pallasite meteorite from Fukang, Xinjiang, China. Photo by Wolfgang Sauber. Licensed under CC By-SA 3.0.

Carbonado Diamonds

Even harder than most diamonds, carbonado diamonds are highly unusual. These porous aggregates of black diamond, amorphous carbon, and graphite occur only in Brazil and the Central African Republic, which were once adjacent areas of the supercontinent Rodinia. Geoscientists are still debating the mechanism of their formation, though an extraterrestrial source is likely. These diamonds are unlike anything else on Earth. Though rarely large enough for faceting and with typically pitted surfaces, they’ll still fascinate as one of the rarest materials on the planet.

“Sergio Carbonado Black Diamond” by RockSteadyGlitter. Public Domain.


Although some believe tektites have extraterrestrial origins, these natural glasses are most likely terrestrial. Tektites form when a high-velocity meteorite impact melts and ejects material back into space, which cools upon re-entering the atmosphere. These gems can be black, grey, brown, or green. Highly popular moldavites from the Nördlinger Ries impact crater in Germany, which flung material into the Czech Republic, have an attractive olive green color.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - moldavite
Elongated bubbles are common inclusions in tektites such as this faceted moldavite. Photo by Vassil. Public Domain.

Viking Sunstone

During sea voyages, Vikings navigated by the Sun. However, cloudy days made it difficult to find its exact position. Historical records mention use of a “sun stone” to do just that. Researchers believe that it was either iolite, a strongly pleochroic gem whose violet-blue hues can sometimes rival fine sapphire, or Iceland spar, another name for rhombohedral calcite.

unique gem materials for jewelry design - iolite
A gemmy crystal of iolite. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Used with permission.

Unusual Mineral Habits as Unique Gem Materials

Sometimes the form that a mineral takes falls outside of most people’s expectation of what a rock can be. Flexible palygorskite, with the nickname “mountain leather,” is one example. Millerite, with a hair-like mineral form, is another. While these unusual minerals rarely make their way out of a mineral cabinet, a creative designer could make use of these unique gem materials to make something the world has never seen.

About the author
Addison Rice
A geologist, environmental engineer and Caltech graduate, Addison's interest in the mesmerizing and beautiful results of earth's geological processes began in her elementary school's environmental club. When she isn't writing about gems and minerals, Addison spends winters studying ancient climates in Iceland and summers hiking the Colorado Rockies.
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