Cushion-cut sphalerite - MontanaCushion-cut sphalerite - Montana

Sphalerite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information

Sphalerite occurs in many colors. With a dispersion over three times that of diamond and an adamantine luster, faceted specimens make beautiful additions to gem collections. However, they're too soft for most jewelry uses.

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Sphalerite occurs in many colors, including green, yellow, orange, brown, and fiery red. With a dispersion over three times that of diamond and an adamantine luster, faceted specimens make beautiful additions to gem collections. However, they’re too soft for most jewelry uses.

Cushion-cut sphalerite - Montana
Custom cushion-cut sphalerite, 21.53 cts, 17 x 13.9 mm, PC Mine, Basin Dist., Jefferson Co., Montana. © The Gem Trader. Used with permission.

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Sphalerite Value

Radiant square-cut sphalerite, 198 cts, 30.1 x 30.3 x 21.1 mm, Las Manforas, Aliva, Picos de Europa, Spain. Photo/video credit:  Etienne Gaspard (Instagram: @arvernesgemmes). Used with permission.

Does Sphalerite Make a Good Jewelry Stone?

Sphalerites have low hardness (3.5 to 4) and perfect cleavage, which make them less than ideal as jewelry stones. Nevertheless, sphalerites can show beautiful colors and may appeal to collectors of unusual gems. Use protective settings for these gems, especially if worn as ring stones.

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    This 18K gold cocktail ring setting allows light to enter the 35.7-ct sphalerite center stone but still protects it from scratches and blows. The ring also features pavé diamonds and tiny sphalerites. Photo courtesy of and I.M. Chait Gallery/Auctioneers.

    For custom cutting, you can easily find facetable sphalerite rough in most colors. Faceting this material, however, poses a challenge. Consult our sphalerite buying guide for more information.

    faceted sphalerites
    Sphalerites: Colorado (1.93). Spain (3.30), Mexico (4.65) // Spain (14.48, 5.57). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

    What Color is Sphalerite?

    Sphalerites come in many colors, including brown, orange, yellow, green, orange-red, red, whitish gray, black, and even (very rarely) colorless. Sphalerites can also show color zoning.

    Sphalerite: Spain. ~ 6 cts. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

    According to a 1984 study by Hoffmann and Henn, a number of trace elements may contribute to color in sphalerites. These include germanium, calcium, copper, mercury, and cerium (yellow); tin, silver, and molybdenum (reddish); and cobalt and iron (green). (p. 49) Iron-rich sphalerites appear black.

    Sphalerite: Spain (5.95). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

    Sphalerite Names and Varieties

    Iron-rich, opaque, black stones are known as marmatites, named after the locality, Marmato, Italy.

    In Europe, sphalerite is sometimes called blende, after the German word blenden, "to dazzle." Though they have no connection to actual ruby gems, stones with red and orange shades are sometimes called "ruby blende."

    Cushion-cut sphalerite, 14.29 cts, 16 x 12 mm, Spain. © The Gem Trader. Used with permission.

    Low-iron, pale and colorless sphalerites, known as cleiophanes, are extremely rare.

    color zoning
    Concave round brilliant-cut sphalerite with golden brown, orange, golden, yellow, and greenish yellow color zones. 19.24 cts, 16.11 mm. Mogilata Mine, Madan, Bulgaria. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

    Identifying Sphalerites

    Sphalerites have an exceptionally high dispersion of 0.156. Well-cut sphalerites can display a beautiful rainbow effect of multi-colored flashes of light. Only other rarely faceted gemstones have comparable dispersion values. Gemologists can measure a gem's dispersion using a refractometer or a spectrometer. However, keep in mind that cut quality, color, and specific gravity can affect how well a specimen displays dispersion.

    sphalerite dispersion
    Golden modified trigon-cut sphalerite with yellow and red flashes. 1 ct, 6.14 mm. Santander, Spain. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

    Sphalerite and wurtzite are polymorphs. They share the same chemical formula (ZnS), but have different crystal habits. Sphalerite has an isometric crystal structure, while wurtzite has a hexagonal structure. These two minerals can coexist in alternating layers as schalenblende, a gem material used rarely for cabochons.

    Schalenblende. Photo by Ra'ike. Licensed under CC By-SA 3.0.

    Sphalerites may have a streak color ranging from pale brown to yellow or white. Keep in mind that streak testing can destroy the test sample. Conduct this examination only as a last resort for gem identification on rough, never on a finished gem. This test will also release a sulfurous odor from the test sample.

    Sphalerites are pyroelectric. When heated, these gems generate an electrical charge.

    Sphalerites may show anomalous double refraction due to crystal strain.

    Refractive index and specific gravity in sphalerites may vary due to variable chemical composition.

    RI and SG vs Sphalerite Chemical Composition
    Refractive index (N) and specific gravity plotted against chemical composition in sphalerite, in which Fe substitutes for Zn, in the formula (Zn,Fe)S. Adapted from W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, 1962, Rock Forming Minerals, vol. 5 (New York: Wiley), p. 174.

    Are There Synthetic Sphalerites?

    Since sphalerite ranks as the primary ore for zinc mining, scientists have synthesized this mineral for industrial research. In addition, facetable synthetic sphalerites in all their colors have appeared in jewelry and gem collections.

    There are no known gemstone treatments for sphalerites.

    Are There Cat's Eye Sphalerites?

    Sphalerites don't normally display cat's eye or star stone effects. However, in a 2009 study, researchers Hyršl and Steinbach found that polishing scratches on the bottoms of sphalerite cabochons may cause apparent chatoyancy and asterism. In this case, these scratches may have occurred accidentally. (pp. 303-304)

    Where are Sphalerites Found?

    Significant gem-quality sources include the following:

    • Santander, Spain: major gem locality, large cleavages of red-orange color.
    • Cananea, Sonora, Mexico: fine green transparent material, often pale colored and color zoned, sometimes yellow.
    • Kipushi, Democratic Republic of the Congo: dark green material containing elevated amounts of cobalt and iron.
    • United States: Franklin, New Jersey (almost colorless to pale green, transparent variety known as cleiophane); Kansas/Missouri/Oklahoma (so-called Tri-State Region, heavily mineralized by lead and zinc, with many localities and operating mines); Tiffin, Ohio (red color); Colorado/Utah (may be transparent); Arizona; Idaho; Montana; Wisconsin.
    • Australia; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Czech Republic; England; France; Germany; Tsumeb, Namibia; Romania; Scotland; Sweden
    sphalerite - China
    Sphalerites on a galena matrix, Huanggang Mines, near Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China, 4.1 x 3.0 x 2.3 cm. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

    Sphalerite Stone Sizes

    From the large, reddish material from Spain, faceters could easily cut gems of hundreds of carats, as well as cabochons. Green cleiophane material from New Jersey has yielded faceted gems as large as 15 carats. Mexican material could yield faceted gems to 50 carats.

    • Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC): 73.3, 68.9 (yellow-brown. Utah); 59.5 (yellow-green, New Jersey): 48 (yellow, Mexico); 61.9, 45.9 (yellow, Spain).
    • California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco): 150.3 (dark red-brown oval, Spain).
    • National Museums of Canada (Ottawa, Ontario): 100.1 (dark orange, round, Spain).
    • Private Collection: 24.8 (gray-green, Mt. Ste. Hilaire, Quebec).
    Star of Asturias - sphalerite
    "The Star of Asturias" faceted sphalerite, 163.4 cts, on display at the Cantonal Museum of Geology, Lausanne, Switzerland. Photo by Sailko. Licensed under CC By 3.0. (Cropped to show detail).

    How to Care for Sphalerite Jewelry

    Clean sphalerites only with a soft brush, mild detergent, and warm water. See our gemstone jewelry cleaning guide for more recommendations.

    Works Cited

    Hoffmann, C. and U. Henn, reviewed by Mahinda Gunawardene. "Grüne Sphalerite aus Zaire (Green sphalerite from Zaire)." Gemological Abstracts. Gems & Gemology, Spring 1985. (Accessed 4/25/24)

    Hyršl, Jaroslav and Martin P. Steinbach. "Pseudo-chatoyancy and pseudo-asterism in sphalerite from Spain." Gems & Gemology, Winter 2009. (Accessed 4/25/24)

    Joel E. Arem, Ph.D., FGA

    Dr. Joel E. Arem has more than 60 years of experience in the world of gems and minerals. After obtaining his Ph.D. in Mineralogy from Harvard University, he has published numerous books that are still among the most widely used references and guidebooks on crystals, gems and minerals in the world.

    Co-founder and President of numerous organizations, Dr. Arem has enjoyed a lifelong career in mineralogy and gemology. He has been a Smithsonian scientist and Curator, a consultant to many well-known companies and institutions, and a prolific author and speaker. Although his main activities have been as a gem cutter and dealer, his focus has always been education.

    Barbara Smigel, PhD. GG

    Barbara Smigel is a GIA certified gemologist, facetor, jewelry designer, gem dealer, gemology instructor and creator of the well-regarded educational websites and

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