Scapolite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information
Although not well known, scapolite would make an attractive gem material for both jewelry enthusiasts and mineral collectors. It comes in a wide variety of colors and can show dramatic fluorescence. Rare specimens also display phenomenal effects, like chatoyancy.
Yellow scapolite's value depends on size, clarity, and strength of color. Expect the usual premiums on price in terms of color saturation and custom versus native or commercial cutting. Values for natural purple or violet scapolites differ greatly from irradiated stones, since the untreated stones are rarer and have a delicate, but much purer, purple. Prices for untreated purple stones would exceed yellow, while prices for irradiated purple stones fall below yellow.
Rare cat's eye scapolites are highly varied and quite beautiful.
Tanzanian golden scapolite is much darker in tone than the Brazilian material, as well as much cleaner. Moreover, there is enough available to make jewelry promotion feasible.
The International Gem Society (IGS) has a list of businesses offering gemstone appraisal services.
|Varieties||Marialite, Meionite, Petschite, Wernerite|
|Crystallography||Tetragonal; crystals prismatic, often large and coarse; massive, granular, cleavages.|
|Refractive Index||Varies by composition and locality, 1.531-1.600. See “Identifying Characteristics” below.|
|Colors||Colorless, white, bluish gray, pale greenish yellow, pink, violet, brown, orangey brown, golden yellow, orangey yellow.|
|Luster||Vitreous; resinous; pearly on cleavages.|
|Polish Luster||Vitreous, resinous|
|Fracture Luster||Vitreous, resinous, pearly|
|Fracture||Uneven to Conchoidal|
|Specific Gravity||Varies with composition. See “Identifying Characteristics” below.|
|Birefringence||Varies by composition and locality, 0.004-0.037. See “Identifying Characteristics” below.|
|Cleavage||Perfect/distinct in two directions|
|Luminescence||Myanmar: yellow to orange in LW (U spectrum), also pink in SW. Tanzania: strong yellow in both LW, SW; violet stones = pink in SW, inert in LW. Quebec: massive material fluoresces in LW (+ phosphorescence). Some yellow faceted gems fluoresce lilac in SW. Strong orange in X-rays.|
|Enhancements||Heat treatment, improves color, common, undetectable. Irradiation turns colorless and yellow to purple. Uncommon, fades rapidly.|
|Special Care Instructions||Avoid rough handling|
|Transparency||Transparent to Opaque|
|Absorption Spectrum||Pink and violet stones show bands in the red at 6630 and 6520 due to Cr. Strong absorption in the yellow part of the spectrum.|
|Phenomena||Very rare: chatoyancy, iridescence, tenebrescence, aventurescence.|
|Etymology||Scapolite comes from the Greek skapos for “shaft,” because of the stumpy nature of its prismatic crystals. Marialite was named after Maria Rosa, wife of German mineralogist G. vom Rath. Meionite comes from the Greek meion for “less,” because its pyramidal form is smaller than that of idocrase from Vesuvius, which it resembles. Mizzonite comes from the Greek meizon for “greater,” because the axial ratio is larger than that of meionite. Wernerite was named after the mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner.|
|Occurrence||In contact zones; regionally metamorphosed rocks; altered basic igneous rocks.|
|Inclusions||Hollow tubes, needles, platelets.|
The scapolite mineral group contains a solid state series from marialite to meionite, with mizzonite as the intermediate member. Gemologically speaking, the term scapolite refers to the gems that form in this series. (Older sources may refer to this series as wernerite). The colors and properties of scapolites vary as the amount of sodium and calcium in their chemical composition changes.
Colors range from near colorless through pinks and purples to yellow and orange. By far, yellows occur most commonly. Purples come a distant second.
Scapolites may show strong fluorescence and pleochroic colors. In addition, rare specimens have displayed a variety of phenomenal effects. These include chatoyancy (in many colors and with unusually sharp “eyes”) and tenebrescence.
In addition, so-called “rainbow scapolites” display iridescence. Recently, the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) found that brownish orange platelets, possibly hematite inclusions, caused aventurescence in a scapolite specimen. (Be aware that pink scapolite with sheen is sometimes erroneously called pink moonstone).
Under shortwave ultraviolet light, this tenebrescent colorless scapolite changes to a light blue. Over time, the blue fades back to colorless. “Scapolite,” cushion cut, 1.55-ct, 7.6 × 7.4 ×5.0, Pakistan. © ARK Rare Gems. Used with permission.
Distinguishing citrines, a yellow variety of quartz, from yellow scapolites may sometimes prove challenging (without a destructive scratch test). Consult this article on difficult separations for advice.
Table of Marialite-Meionite Series Properties
|Entire Rios, Mozambique|
|Umba River, Tanzania|
|Umba River, Tanzania|
|Umba River, Tanzania|
|Umba River, Tanzania|
very pale yellow
|Rio Pardo, Brazil|
|Myanmar (cat’s eye)|
|Sri Lanka (cat’s eye)|
|Kenya (cat’s eye)|
Graph of Scapolite Optical Properties Versus Chemical Composition
Note: Dipyre is a Ca-rich marialite.
Heating can improve color. This common enhancement is undetectable.
Yellow and colorless scapolites may receive radiation treatments. This uncommon enhancement creates a brownish purple color, which fades rapidly.
Tanzania produces the finest golden yellow scapolite known in commercial quantities. Dodoma, Tanzania yields transparent, golden yellow to orangey yellow gem material. This source sometimes produces very pale to near colorless stones, as well as violetish and pink (rare) cuttable crystals.
Espirito Santo, Brazil produces pale yellow crystals, sometimes large and facetable.
Madagascar produces yellow, facetable crystals.
Other notable gem-quality sources include:
- Canada: Quebec (lemon yellow, opaque scapolite, some with silky luster); Ontario (light yellow, pink, and green material yielding tiny cut gems).
- Kenya: brownish cat’s eyes.
- Myanmar: white, yellow, pink to violet (all cuttable); also bluish, pinkish, white cat’s eyes.
- Afghanistan; China; Pakistan; Peru; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan.
The pink and purple Tanzanian material is extremely rare in sizes over 5 carats. You’ll find most gems of this color in the 1-2 carat range.
Brazilian yellow scapolite is cuttable up to about 30 carats. However, at that size, it’s usually flawed (long thin tubes).
Faceted Myanmar scapolites are rarely encountered on the market. However, white and yellow specimens from Myanmar have been found in large sizes. Pink Myanmar step-cut gems to 70 carats have been reported. Cat’s eyes usually run under 10 carats. However, larger ones are known.
- Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Ontario, Canada): 28.4, 57.6 (yellow, Brazil); 7.91 (pink, Myanmar); 65.63 (colorless, Myanmar); 18.8 (gray, cat’s eye); and 18.3 (pink cat’s eye).
- Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC): 288 (colorless, Myanmar); 29.9, 19.7 (cat’s eye, pink, Sri Lanka); 12.3 (pink, Myanmar); 103.4, 52.2 (yellow-orange, Tanzania).
- Devonian Group (Calgary, Alberta, Canada): 3.34 (blue cat’s eye, Myanmar); 21.25 (white cat’s eye, India).
- Private Collection: 14.83 (violet, Tanzania, largest known of this color); 52.92 (green-brown cat’s eye).
With a hardness of 5.5 to 6 and perfect cleavage, scapolites require care when setting and wearing as jewelry. Although daily wear as a ring stone may be inadvisable, protective settings and occasional use will let you show off these rarely seen gems. Scapolites would make excellent choices for pendants and earrings. Avoid cleaning them with mechanical systems. Instead, use only a soft brush, mild detergent, and warm water. Consult our gemstone jewelry cleaning guide for more recommendations.