Summary
In order to identify gemstones, gemologists often measure their density or specific gravity. The following table lists the specific gravity values for a variety of materials commonly found in gem and jewelry collections, as well as for some materials more rarely encountered.
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star-cut teal cubic zirconia - specific gravity values

Lab-created cubic zirconia (CZ) can be used to imitate the appearance of many gemstones. Although most well-known as a diamond simulant, this material can be manufactured in different colors, like this teal, star-cut piece. However, CZ’s properties still differ from those of other gems, so gemologists can usually distinguish them. Most notably, CZ’s specific gravity far exceeds that of most gemstones. Photo by humanfeather. Licensed under CC By 3.0.

Table of Specific Gravity Values

Gemstone Density
Gold 15.50-19.30
Thorianite 9.70-9.80
Silver 9.60-12.00
Algondonite 8.38
Bismutotantalite 8.15-8.89
Cinnabar 8.00-8.20
Stolzite 7.90-8.34
Niccolite 7.78
Manganotantalite 7.73-7.97
Melonite 7.72
Breithauptite 7.59-8.23
Stibiotantalite 7.53
Mimetite 7.24
Huebnerite 7.12-7.18
Wolframite 7.10-7.60
Gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG)* 7.00-7.09
Cassiterite 6.70-7.10
Wulfenite 6.50-7.00
Vanadinite 6.50-7.10
Cerussite 6.46-6.57
Cobaltite 6.33
Anglesite 6.30-6.39
Phosgenite 6.13
Simpsonite 5.92-6.84
Scheelite 5.90-6.30
Crocoite 5.90-6.10
Cuprite 5.85-6.15
Pyrargyrite 5.85
Yttrotantalite 5.70
Zincite 5.66
Proustite 5.51-5.64
Descloizite 5.50-6.20
Chalcosite 5.50-5.80
Cubic zirconia (CZ)* 5.50-6.00
Millerite 5.50
Fergusonite 5.35-5.44
Euxenite 5.30-5.90
Linarite 5.30
Senarmontite 5.20-5.50
Magnetite 5.20
Aeschynite 5.19
Tantalite 5.18-8.20
Hematite 5.12-5.28
Fabulite (Tausonite) 5.11-5.15
Bornite 5.06-5.08
Boleite 5.05
Samarskite 5.00-5.69
Pyrite 5.00-5.20
Monazite 4.98-5.43
Bixbyite** 4.93
Marcasite 4.83-4.92
Greenockite 4.73-4.79
Psilomelane (Manganese oxide) 4.70-4.74
Linobate (Lithium niobate)* 4.64-4.66
Pentlandite 4.60-5.00
Covellite 4.60-4.76
Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)* 4.55-4.65
Ilmenite 4.50-5.00
Pyrolusite 4.50-5.00
Chromite 4.50-4.80
Davidite 4.50
Barite 4.43-4.46
Magnesiochromite 4.39-4.67
Bayldonite 4.35
Parisite 4.33-4.42
Microlite 4.30-5.70
Adamite 4.30-4.68
Witherite 4.27-4.79
Galaxite 4.23
Powellite 4.23
Rutile 4.20-4.30
Spessartite garnet 4.12-4.18
Shattuckite 4.11
Chalcopyrite 4.10-4.30
Wurtzite 4.09
Brookite 4.08-4.18
Hancockite 4.03
Painite 4.01
Gadolinite 4.00-4.65
Smithsonite 4.00-4.65
Gahnite 4.00-4.62
Legrandite 3.98-4.04
Ruby 3.97-4.05
Celestite 3.97-4.00
Libethenite 3.97
Ferrosilite 3.96
Sapphire 3.95-4.03
Durangite 3.94-4.07
Zircon 3.93-4.73
Almandine garnet 3.93-4.30
Hodgkinsonite 3.91-3.99
Sphalerite 3.90-4.10
Willemite 3.89-4.18
Tephroite 3.87-4.12
Siderite 3.83-3.96
Anatase 3.82-3.97
Goethite 3.80-4.30
Gaspéite 3.71
Andradite garnet 3.70-4.10
Azurite 3.70-3.90
Periclase 3.70-3.90
Chrysoberyl (Cat’s eye, Alexandrite) 3.70-3.78
Schorlomite*** 3.69-3.88
Barytocalcite 3.66
Staurolite 3.65-3.77
Benitoite 3.64-3.68
Strontianite 3.63-3.79
Pyrope garnet 3.62-3.87
Pyroxmangite 3.61-3.80
Holtite 3.60-3.90
Taafeite 3.60-3.62
Grossular garnet 3.56-3.73
Realgar 3.56
Spinel 3.54-3.63
Kyanite 3.53-3.70
Nambulite 3.53
Sphene (Titanite) 3.52-3.54
Allanite 3.50-4.20
Aegirine 3.50-3.60
Hedenbergite 3.50-3.56
Diamond 3.50-3.53
Topaz 3.49-3.57
Chambersite 3.49
Sinhalite 3.46-3.50
Rhodochrosite 3.45-3.70
Piedmontite 3.45-3.52
Euchroite 3.44
Rhodizite 3.44
Serendibite 3.42-3.52
Uvarovite garnet 3.41-3.52
Rhodonite 3.40-3.74
Lithiophilite 3.40-3.60
Sapphirine 3.40-3.58
Aegirine-augite 3.40-3.55
Hypersthene 3.40-3.50
Chromdravite 3.40
Scorzalite 3.38
Tinzenite 3.36-3.43
Tanzanite 3.35
Triphylite 3.34-3.58
Dickinsonite 3.34-3.41
Idocrase (Vesuvianite) 3.32-3.47
Bustamite 3.32-3.42
Serandite 3.32
Manganaxinite 3.31
Epidote 3.30-3.50
Hemimorphite 3.30-3.50
Diaspore 3.30-3.39
Jadeite 3.30-3.38
Peridot 3.28-4.39
Dioptase 3.28-3.35
Ekanite 3.28-3.32
Jeremejevite 3.28-3.31
Parascorodite 3.28-3.29
Forsterite 3.28
Kornerupine 3.27-3.45
Dumortierite 3.26-3.41
Axinite 3.26-3.36
Povondraite 3.28
Malachite 3.25-4.10
Ferroaxinite 3.25-4.10
Papagoite 3.25
Smaragdite 3.24-3.50
Sillimanite 2.23-3.27
Diopside 3.22-3.38
Väyrynenite 3.22
Weloganite 3.22
Clinozoisite 3.21-3.28
Helvite 3.20-3.44
Purpurite 3.20-3.40
Humite 3.20-3.32
Enstatite 3.20-3.30
Neptunite 3.19-3.23
Clinoenstatite 3.19
Rinkite 3.18-3.44
Pumpellyite 3.18-3.33
Magnesioaxinite 3.18
Norbergite 3.18
Chlorapatite 3.17-3.18
Chondrodite 3.16-3.26
Apatite 3.16-3.23
Strass 3.15-4.20
Zoisite (non-Tanzanite) 3.15-3.36
Spodumene (Hiddenite, Kunzite) 3.15-3.21
Hureaulite 3.15-3.19
Sellaite 3.15
Clinohumite 3.13-3.75
Fluorapatite 3.10-3.25
Carborundum* 3.10-3.22
Ludlamite 3.10-3.20
Euclase 3.10
Lawsonite 3.08-3.09
Phosphophyllite 3.07-3.13
Friedelite 3.06-3.19
Andalusite 3.05-3.20
Eosphorite 3.05-3.08
Pargasite 3.04-3.17
Lazulite 3.04-3.14
Actinolite 3.03-3.44
Spurrite 3.02
Amblygonite 3.01-3.11
Fluorite 3.00-3.25
Meliphanite 3.00-3.03
Leucophanite 3.00
Schlossmacherite 3.00
Chiolite 2.99-3.01
Montebrasite 2.98-3.11
Brazilianite 2.98-2.99
Richterite 2.97-3.45
Danburite 2.97-3.03
Ankerite 2.97
Cryolite 2.97
Magnesite 2.96-3.12
Tremolite 2.95-3.07
Herderite 2.95-3.02
Phenakite 2.95-2.97
Boracite 2.95-2.96
Aragonite 2.94
Vlasovite 2.92-2.96
Sarcolite 2.91-2.96
Hornblende 2.90-3.40
Nephrite 2.90-3.03
Datolite 2.90-3.00
Anhydrite 2.90-2.98
Prosopite 2.88-2.89
Hurlbutite 2.88
Zunyite 2.87
Wollastonite 2.86-3.09
Grandidierite 2.85-3.00
Pollucite 2.85-2.94
Langbeinite 2.83
Tourmaline 2.82-3.90
Prehnite 2.82-2.94
Wardite 2.81-2.87
Dolomite 2.80-2.95
Lepidolite 2.80-2.90
Beryllonite 2.80-2.87
Zektzerite 2.79
Muscovite 2.78-2.88
Sogdianite 2.76-2.90
Sugilite 2.76-2.80
Sekaninaite 2.76-2.77
Ammolite 2.75-2.80
Eudialyte 2.74-2.98
Pectolite (Larimar) 2.74-2.88
Meionite 2.74-2.78
Bytownite 2.72-2.74
Catapleiite 2.72
Creedite 2.72
Xonotlite 2.71-2.72
Canasite 2.71
Ceruleite 2.70-2.80
Augelite 2.70-2.75
Calcite 2.69-2.71
Aquamarine 2.68-2.74
Emerald 2.67-2.78
Precious Beryl**** 2.66-2.87
Pyrophyllite 2.65-2.90
Labradorite 2.65-2.75
Andesine 2.65-2.69
Quartz (Amethyst, Citrine, Prasiolite, Rock crystal, Rose quartz, Smoky quartz) 2.65
Vivianite 2.64-2.70
Aventurine 2.64-2.69
Kämmererite 2.64
Oligoclase 2.62-2.67
Sunstone 2.62-2.65
Pearl 2.60-2.85
Coral 2.60-2.70
Agate 2.60-2.64
Schaurteite 2.60
Peristerite 2.59-2.68
Petrified wood 2.58-2.91
Jasper 2.58-2.91
Cordierite 2.58-2.66
Chalcedony 2.58-2.64
Chrysoprase 2.58-2.64
Moss agate 2.58-2.64
Tiger’s eye 2.58-2.64
Scapolite 2.57-2.74
Anorthoclase 2.75-2.60
Moonstone 2.56-2.59
Amazonite 2.56-2.58
Orthoclase 2.56-2.58
Sanidine 2.56-2.58
Talc 2.55-2.80
Nepheline 2.55-2.65
Lizardite 2.55
Charoite 2.54-2.78
Microline 2.54-2.57
Clinochrysotile 2.53
Lapis lazuli 2.50-3.00
Marialite 2.50-2.62
Milarite 2.46-2.61
Howlite 2.45-2.58
Leucite 2.45-2.50
Carletonite 2.45
Serpentine 2.44-2.62
Variscite 2.42-2.58
Haüyne 2.40-2.50
Colemanite 2.40-2.42
Petalite 2.40
Brucite 2.39
Tugtupite 2.36-2.57
Wavellite 2.36
Obsidian (natural glass) 2.35-2.60
Hambergite 2.35
Moldavite (natural glass) 2.32-2.38
Turquoise 2.31-2.84
Apophyllite 2.30-2.50
Thomsonite 2.23-2.39
Analcime 2.22-2.29
Palygorskite 2.21
Cacoxenite 2.20-2.60
Gypsum 2.20-2.40
Zeolite (Natrolite, Mesolite, Scolecite) 2.20-2.29
Whewellite 2.19-2.25
Yugawaralite 2.19-2.23
Stichtite 2.16-2.18
Sodalite 2.14-2.40
Mordenite 2.12-2.15
Chabazite 2.05-2.20
Sulfur 2.05-2.08
Glass (artificial)* 2.00-4.50
Chrysocolla 2.00-2.40
Sepiolite 2.00-2.10
Gaylussite 1.99
Opal 1.88-2.50
Thaumasite 1.91
Kurnakovite 1.86
Sturmanite 1.85
Inderite 1.78-1.86
Ettringite 1.77
Ulexite 1.65-1.95
Mellite 1.64
Jet 1.19-1.35
Amber 1.05-1.09

Notes

* Lab-created gem material.

** This is not bixbite, the gemstone better known as red beryl.

*** Non-gem garnet species.

**** Non-aquamarine or emerald varieties of beryl.